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3D苝酰亚胺 非富勒烯受体

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3D苝酰亚胺 非富勒烯受体

3D苝酰亚胺 非富勒烯受体

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Tetraphenylethylene Core-Based 3D Structure Small Molecular Acceptor Enabling Effi cient Non-Fullerene Organic Solar Cells

Y uhang L iu ,C heng M u ,K ui J iang ,J ingbo Z hao ,Y unke L i ,L u Z hang ,Z hengke L i ,J oshua Yuk L in Lai ,H uawei H u ,T ingxuan M a ,R ongrong H u ,D emei Y u , X uhui H uang ,B en Zhong T ang ,a nd H e Y an*

Y 。 Liu, Dr。 C。 Mu, K。 Jiang, J。 Zhao, Y 。 Li, Dr。 L。 Zhang, Z。 Li, J。 Y 。 L。 Lai, H。 Hu, T。 Ma, Dr。 R。 Hu, Prof。 X。 Huang, Prof。 B。 Z。 Tang, Prof。 H。 Yan

D epartment of Chemistry

T he Hong Kong University of Science and Technology C lear Water Bay ,H ong Kong E-mail: h yan@ust.hk

D r. R. Hu, Prof. X. Huang, Prof. B. Z. Tang, Prof. H. Yan

H KUST Shenzhen Research Institute N o。 9 Yuexing 1st RD, Hi-tech Park ,N anshan ,S henzhen 518057 ,C hina

Y 。 Liu, T。 Ma, Prof。 D。 Yu

J oint School of Sustainable Development and MOE Key Lab for Non-Equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter.

X i’an Jiaotong University X i’an 710049 ,P R China DOI: 10。1002/adma。201404152

3D苝酰亚胺 非富勒烯受体

domains (as large as 1 µm) in BHJ fi lms。

[ 15,19 ]

重庆快乐十分To prevent the aggregation of SM acceptors, SM s with twisted structures or

with bulky bridging units have been developed. [ 15,19,21,22 ]The

twisted or bulky groups reduce intermolecular interactions and thus molecular aggregations. These SMs can form smooth amorphous BHJ fi lms with reasonably small domain sizes. However, commonly used amorphous SM acceptor materials exhibit relatively low electron mobilities mostly on the order of 10 −5 or 10 −4cm 2V −1s −1 [ 14,18,19,21,24 ] (determined by the SCLC method). Furthermore, most SM acceptors do not have the 3D ball-shape molecular structure of fullerenes and thus may not form a 3D charge-transporting network as readily as fuller-enes do. For this reason, a potentially promising approach is to develop SM materials with quasi-3D or 3D molecular struc-tures. Zhan and co-workers

重庆快乐十分[ 21 ] have demonstrated a star-shape trimer that has a quasi-3D molecular structure, which has ena-bled interesting material properties and reasonably high-per-forming SM acceptor-based OSCs. T his paper reports a tetraphenylethylene (TPE) core-based SM acceptor, TPE-PDI 4

, with a unique 3D molecular struc-ture that enables the construction of non-fullerene OSCs with a high power-conversion effi ciency (PCE) of 5。53%。 TPE is a building block widely used in the fi eld of aggregation-induced

emission (AIE). [ 31,32 ] While the light-emitting properties of

TPE-based molecules are not relevant to this paper, TPE does exhibit some special properties suitable for the OSC appli-cation. Its four phenyl rings are highly twisted due to strong steric hindrance: they all tilt by about 50° relative to the plane of the center double bond and form a “four-wing propeller-shape”

重庆快乐十分molecular structure ( F igure 1

a ) in the solid state. [ 33 ] Due to their highly twisted molecular structure, TPE-based molecules exhibit weak intermolecular interactions and thus excellent solubility in organic solvents even when they have no or very minimal alkyl-solubilizing groups. Given these properties, in this study, the TPE core structure is connected to four perylen-ediimide (PDI) units, which have a very large near-planar struc-ture and are commonly used as the acceptor for non-fullerene

OSCs。 [ 34,35 ] The 2D chemical structure of TPE-PDI 4 is shown in Figure 1 b 。 To obtain the 3D molecular conformations of TPE-PDI 4

, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have performed。 Figure 1 c –e illustrates three possible locally optimal structural conformations of TPE-PDI 4 , which all exhibit 3D molecular structures。 In Figure 1 c , the two PDIs on the same side (left or right) of the TPE double bond exhibit an “edge-to-face” geometry。 In Figure 1 d , the two PDIs on the same side are

B ulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) have attracted much research attention due to their promise in low-cost conversion of solar energy. [ 1–5 ] A common BHJ OS

C con-sists of an electron donor and an electron acceptor that work

together to convert light to electricity。 [ 2,3 ] To date, best-per-formance OSCs can only be achieved using a specifi c type of

acceptor materials, fullerenes (e。g。, [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid

重庆快乐十分methyl ester [PCBM ]).

[ 4,5 ] Fullerenes work particularly well for BHJ OSCs, because they have ball or near-ball-shape structures

and can thus readily form a 3D charge-transporting network。

[ 6,7 ] In addition, commonly used fullerene derivatives (PC 61B M or PC 71

B M) can form reasonably small fullerene domains (20 nm) in BHJ fi lms, yet still provide a suffi cient electron-transport mobility (space-charge-limited-current [SCLC] and fi eld-effect

transistor [FET] electron mobilities of PC 61B M

are ≈2 × 10 −3 and 2.8 × 10

−2cm 2V −1s −1,respectively) [ 8,9 ] for OSCs. Small domain size and suffi cient electron mobility are two important

requirements to achieve high-performance OSCs。

[ 10 ]Despite their high performance, fullerenes have several drawbacks such as poor absorption properties and high costs of purifi cation and

重庆快乐十分production. [ 11 ] For this reason, non-fullerene acceptor materials

including small molecules (SM s)

[ 6,7,12–25 ] and conjugated poly-mers

[ 26–30 ] have been actively explored as potential alternatives to replace fullerenes in OSCs.

I n contrast to PCBM , it is much more challenging for SM acceptors to achieve small domain sizes and suffi cient elec-tron mobilities at the same time. A common problem for SM acceptor materials is that many crystalline SM materials with large planar structures tend to form excessively large crystalline

Adv. Mater. 2015, 27, 1015–1020www.advmat.de

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